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BirthTouch: Questions and Concerns

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Curriculum Development By Purita Bilbao Pdf Free

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A curriculum can be seen from different perspectives. What societies envisage as important teaching and learning constitutes the "intended" curriculum.[16] Since it is usually presented in official documents, it may be also called the "written" or "official" curriculum.[16] However, at a classroom level this intended curriculum may be altered through a range of complex classroom interactions, and what is actually delivered can be considered the "implemented" curriculum.[16] What learners really learn (i.e. what can be assessed and can be demonstrated as learning outcomes or competencies) constitutes the "achieved" or "learned" curriculum.[16] In addition, curriculum theory points to a "hidden" curriculum (i.e. the unintended development of personal values and beliefs of learners, teachers, and communities; the unexpected impact of a curriculum; or the unforeseen aspects of a learning process).[16] Those who develop the intended curriculum should have all these different dimensions of the curriculum in view.[16] While the "written" curriculum does not exhaust the meaning of curriculum, it is important because it represents the vision of the society.[16] The "written" curriculum is usually expressed in comprehensive and user-friendly documents, such as curriculum frameworks or subject curricula/syllabi, and in relevant and helpful learning materials, such as textbooks, teacher guides, and assessment guides.[16]

In some cases, people see the curriculum entirely in terms of the subjects that are taught, and as set out within the set of textbooks, and forget the wider goals of competencies and personal development.[15] This is why a curriculum framework is important. It sets the subjects within this wider context, and shows how learning experiences within the subjects need to contribute to the attainment of the wider goals.[15]

Curriculum is almost always defined with relation to schooling.[14] According to some, it is the major division between formal and informal education.[14] However, under some circumstances it may also be applied to informal education or free-choice learning settings. For instance, a science museum may have a "curriculum" of what topics or exhibits it wishes to cover. Many after-school programs in the US have tried to apply the concept; this typically has more success when not rigidly clinging to the definition of curriculum as a product or as a body of knowledge to be transferred. Rather, informal education and free-choice learning settings are more suited to the model of curriculum as practice or praxis.

Although it formally appeared in Bobbitt's definition, curriculum as a course of formative experience also pervades John Dewey's work (who disagreed with Bobbitt on important matters). Although Bobbitt's and Dewey's idealistic understanding of "curriculum" is different from current, restricted uses of the word, writers of curricula and researchers generally share it as common, substantive understanding of curriculum.[20][21] Development does not mean just getting something out of the mind.[15] It is a development of experience and into experience that is really wanted.[15]

In recent years the field of education and curriculum has expanded outside the walls of the classroom and into other settings, such as museums. Within these settings curriculum is an even broader topic, including various teachers, inanimate objects such as audio tour devices, and even the learners themselves. As with the traditional idea of curriculum, curriculum in a free choice learning environment can consist of the explicit stated curriculum and the hidden curriculum; both of which contribute to the learner's experience and lessons from the experience.[22] These elements are further compounded by the setting, cultural influences, and the state of mind of the learner.[23] Museums and other similar settings are most commonly leveraged within traditional classroom settings as enhancements to the curriculum when educators develop cur


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